Evaluation of Filler Effects on the Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of HTPB-Elastomer Used as Binder in Exemplary Composite Formulations


  • Mauricio Ferrapontoff Lemos Brazilian Navy Research Institute, Rio de Janeiro http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5933-9135
  • Günter Mussbach Bayern-Chemie GmbH, Aschau am Inn
  • Manfred August Bohn Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology (ICT), D-76318 Pfinztal


DMA, Ammonium perchlorate, Aluminum, Cyclotrimethylene trinitramine, HTPB loss factor modelling.


This study aims to evaluate the dynamic mechanical properties of a binder, used in composite propellants, with increasing amount of different solid fillers. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) is performed to determine the region of glassrubber transition temperature (Tg). Further parameters were obtained from the description of the loss factor curves (tanδ) with models based on exponentially modified Gauss (EMG) distribution function. Polyurethane binders employing the polyol HTPB and diisocyanate were filled with 20,40,and 60 mass-% of ammonium perchlorate (AP), aluminum (Al) or cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) particles, using fine and coarse mean sizes. A special turning device manufactured by Fraunhofer ICT was installed inside the curing oven in order to avoid sedimentation during curing. The cured composites were characterized by DMA in torsion mode from ‑100 °C to 70 °C. The good homogeneous distribution of fillers in the samples was evaluated by computational X-ray micro-tomography. The data on tanδ showed a complex structure describable at first with 2 overlapping peaks. The peak at lower temperatures is due to mobility of unrestricted binder parts (Tg unr) and the second broader peak at high temperature is due to mobility of restricted binder parts (Tg res). Results of tanδ, calculated areas of EMG curves and apparent activation energies of the distinct relaxation processes indicate that Al particles have higher interaction with HTPB-based polyurethane than AP and RDX. Probably Al is bonded to the binder network via isocyanate coupling with OH groups present in the surface. Ammonium perchlorate and cyclotrimethylene trinitramine particle sizes and its morphology influenced the viscoelastic properties. AP and RDX cause more changes in intensity of first peak of loss factor than Al. Increasing amount of these both particles enhances storage (G’) and loss (G”) shear moduli. As a whole tanδ intensity is lowered in the main peak and Al showed an intensity increase in the second apparent peak.

Author Biography

Mauricio Ferrapontoff Lemos, Brazilian Navy Research Institute, Rio de Janeiro

Researcher on Materials Technology






Original Papers