A New Coupled Free Wake-CFD Method for Calculation of Helicopter Rotor Flow-Field in Hover


  • Hamid Farrokhfal Malek-Ashtar University of Technology
  • Ahmad Reza Pishevar Isfahan University of Technology - Isfahan – Iran


Free wake, Euler equations.


This paper concerns a new coupled free wake-CFD method for proper calculation of aerodynamic loads on a two bladed helicopter rotor in hovering flight. Loading is computed by solving the three dimensional Euler equations in a rotating coordinate system. However, since direct simulation of the tip vortices and wake requires a very fine grid, the rotor’s wake effects are modeled by a free wake approach and included into the CFD calculation by a transpiration boundary condition at the rotor surface. An influence coefficient solution method is used to find the rotor’s wake shape, being steady in a rotating frame. Euler equations are also considered in the form of absolute flow variables and solved by a multi grid Jameson’s finite-volume method. The accuracy of the proposed method is illustrated by comparing numerical results to the available experimental results for the pressure distribution on a blade of a model helicopter rotor at different tip Mach numbers.

Author Biography

Hamid Farrokhfal, Malek-Ashtar University of Technology

Assistant Professor, Dept. of Mechanical & Aerospace Eng.






Original Papers