Multidecadal Cycles of the Climatic Index Atlantic Meridional Mode: Sunspots that Affect North and Northeast of Brazil

Cleber Souza Correa, Roberto Lage Guedes, André Muniz Marinho da Rocha, Karlmer Abel Bueno Corrêa

Abstract


Using the 1951-2017 historical series of the Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM) index and the monthly number of sunspots, it was possible to observe a significant association between them. The use of wavelet and cross-wavelet analysis showed the presence of multidecadal cycles pronounced in eleven years, as well as cycles of 2.66 and 5.33. AMM index showed, in the part of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST), the presence of a weak signal of 21.33 years. Influence and association of sunspot variability on surface temperature in Northern and Northeastern regions of Brazil were investigated. Using a nonparametric statistical correlation test, the historical series of surface temperature anomalies in five locations (Belém, São Luiz, Fortaleza, Fernando de Noronha, and Natal) were compared with the monthly solar-series anomalies. The temperature series used were the minimum monthly average, the monthly average, and maximum monthly average temperatures, with their respective anomalies in relation to the mean. However, among all the series (except for São Luiz), the analyzed minimum temperature anomalies showed a negative correlation with sunspots. As a preliminary result, the analyzed climatic indexes present an apparent degree of memory associated with the variability of sunspot activity.

Keywords


Sunspots; Atlantic Meridional Mode; Multidecadal cycles.

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