Phase Separation and Development of the Microstructure for Stainless Steel to Copper Alloy Weld Joints Using a Fiber Laser

Sheila Medeiros de Carvalho, Rafael Humberto de Mota Siqueira, Milton Sergio Fernandes de Lima

Abstract


Stainless steel and copper alloys joints are often applied in aerospace, marine and power industries where both high thermal and electrical conductivity (Cu) and corrosion resistance (steel) are required. In the aerospace industry, in particular for the combustion chamber of rocket engines, copper and steel combinations offer perfect materials selection due to their combined high thermal conductivity and good stiffness. In this work, laser welds were produced with intensity between 3.8 × 104 and 5.7 × 104 W/mm2 and a heat input between 72 and 108 J/mm, giving an aspect ratio of 1.8. The microstructure of the weld beads was marked by chemical heterogeneities due to the phase separation between Cu and Fe in the liquid state. The phase separation gave rise to globular precipitates which further transform due to a secondary precipitation at temperatures below 1000°C. The steel side part of the weld presents around 20% Cu, leading to a liquation of the grain boundaries and cracking at high heat inputs. The hardness values situated between both base materials and the tensile shear behavior, when the weld is suffi ciently tough, present strength up to 350 MPa and elongation up to 10%.

Keywords


Welding; Copper alloys; Laser

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